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Wednesday, November 18, 2020 | History

3 edition of Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larvae found in the catalog.

Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larvae

cholinergic and monoaminergic effects and the role of calcium and cyclic nucleotides

by Sherif Soliman

  • 326 Want to read
  • 38 Currently reading

Published by Universitet Stockholm in Stockholm .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Sea urchins -- Effect of drugs on.,
  • Sea urchins -- Locomotion.,
  • Sea urchins -- Larvae.,
  • Calcium.,
  • Cyclic nucleotides.

  • Edition Notes

    StatementSherif Soliman.
    Classifications
    LC ClassificationsQL384.E2 S65 1983
    The Physical Object
    Pagination1 v. (various pagings) :
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL2954032M
    ISBN 109171462678
    LC Control Number84196200


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Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larvae by Sherif Soliman Download PDF EPUB FB2

The present investigation comprises a part of this program and is focused on the control of ciliary activity in the sea urchin larva from hatching throughout gastrulation. This paper deals with the effects of cholinergic agents on the cili- ary activity as revealed by the swimming by: 8.

A. Rev. Bio- chem. 49, Solimans S. (a) Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Effects of choliner- gic agonists and antagonists. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 74C, Soliman S. (b) Pharmacological control of ciliary activ- ity in the young sea urchin larva.

Effects of mono- aminergic agents. Comp. by: 9. Ciliary control in the young larva, from hatching to the end of gastrulation, was approached in a previous paper where swimming intensity was used as a parameter of ciliary activity (Soliman, ).

Ac- cording to this study, acetylcholine has pronounced ciliary effects which appear to reflect stimulatory nicotonic as well as modulatory muscarinic receptor by: Ciliary activity is affected by serotonin, dopamine and various alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonists reacting with specific receptors.

The effects of various monoamine precursors applied at hatching or later on suggest that the initiation of ciliary activity and its control during early gastrulation reflects a temporary formation of by: Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva: chemical studies on the role of cyclic nucleotides.

Soliman S. Distinct peaks in cAMP and cGMP content during early development, partly opposite to each other, may be correlated with the two main phases of gastrulation and ciliary by: 9.

Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Studies on the role of Ca2+ and cyclic nucleotides. Soliman S. The ciliary stimulation by monoamines is enhanced by adenylcyclase activators and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor indicating that cAMP is a mediator, a conclusion supported by the effects of db-cAMP.

A moderate reduction in [Ca2^ of the sea water will thus increase ciliary activity whereas in- Pharmacologie control of cilia creased [Ca2^ brings about inhibition. The stimu- latory effect of rather low concentrations of some Ca24^ antagonists may reflect an alleviation of the inhibitory Ca2+ effects, whereas the use of the Ca24 ionophore A in high concentrations brings about the.

Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva: chemical studies on the role of cyclic nucleotides. 1. The muscular activity of the sea urchin pluteus is affected by catecholamines.

α-Agonists in high concentrations bring about a strong, temporary, s. Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva.

Effects of monoaminergic February Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Comparative Pharmacology and. Various single-celled eukaryotes (protists) and the ciliated larvae of sponges devoid of neurons can display sophisticated behaviours, including phototaxis, gravitaxis or chemotaxis.

In single-celled eukaryotes, sensory inputs directly influence the motor behaviour of the cell. In swimming sponge larvae, sensory cells influence the activity of cilia on the same cell, thereby steering the multicellular. The swimming activity of sea urchin larvae depends on the ciliary beating primarily generated at the circumoral ciliary band (CB) and is regulated by sever The ontogeny of synaptophysin expression patterns on the GABAergic ciliary band-associated strand during larval development of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus A.

Agassiz, | SpringerLink. body, the activity of cilia and flagella are precisely regulated by the nervous system and under variable environmental conditions. Sea-urchin embryos or larvae swim about through the beating of cilia, which cover the almost entire surface of the body (Fig. They regulate the swimming behavior by gathering.

In sea urchin larvae, serotonin cells at the apical ganglion inserted neurites into the ciliary band ectoderm and blastocoelar space (e.g. Bisgrove and Burke, ). However, neither at the ciliary band ectoderm nor in the blastocoelar space, did these nervous terminals constitute synapses (Nakajima et al., ), suggesting that serotonin is secreted into the blastocoelar space from the nerve ends.

The swimming activity of sea urchin plutei is carried out by the body surface ciliary beating and is regulated by various neurotransmitters, including GABA 1, serotoninand dopamine 5, 6.

This suggests that swimming in sea urchin blastulae might be regulated by a distinctive mechanism that is not related to the 5HT-NS. The beating of cilia is known to be regulated by catecholamines, in particular dopamine (DA) in invertebrates (Soliman, b; Voronezhskaya et al., ; Martin et al., ) and vertebrates (Maruyama et al., ; Tomé et al., ).

In swimming sponge larvae, sensory cells influence the activity of cilia on the same cell, thereby steering the multicellular larva. 49 Soliman, S. Pharmacological control of ciliary.

Because larvae use cilia for propulsion, changes in locomotor responses are presumably largely due to changes in ciliary activity.

Previous papers have demonstrated that, at the pluteus stage, the cilia of sea urchin larvae acquire the capability for reversed beating, resulting in the typical.

One of the signatures of evolutionarily related cell types is the expression of similar combinations of transcription factors in distantly related animals. Here we present evidence that sea urchin larvae possess bilateral clusters of ciliary photoreceptors that are positioned in the oral/anterior apical neurogenic domain and associated with pigment cells.

Conclusions. We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus development and hypothesize that HA may have played an important role in the evolution of settlement strategies in echinoids.

Our findings provide novel insights into the evolution of HA signalling and its function in one of the most important and widespread life history transitions in the animal kingdom.

Serotonin seems to play a general role in the upregulation of ciliary beat frequency (in mollusc, echinoderm [49,50] and annelid (G. Jékely unpublished) larvae), and the control of cilia by a sensory-motor serotonergic system may trace back to the common ancestor of protostomes and deuterostomes.

Acknowledgements. This work was supported by NSF award IBN to A. Pires. The author thanks J. Pechenik for encouragement to use C. fornicata as an experimental animal and for sharing information about culture methods used in his laboratory. Penniman assisted in the development of electrophysiological techniques for the study of settlement and metamorphosis.

A limited number of other studies examining cGMP and cilia have been reported in snails and sea urchin larva. Membrane control of ciliary movement in ciliates. Biol. Cell63, – S. Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva.

Studies on the role of Ca 2+ and cyclic nucleotides. Comp. To address the unsolved question how cilia are regulated when these microorganisms explore their environment and are successful in life, we studied the ciliary movement of embryos and larvae of sea urchins by means of high-speed video micrography and by computerized analysis of ciliary.

We found that nectochaete larvae showed very similar ciliary activity to trochophore larvae, but younger larvae displayed fewer muscle contractions. For this reason, we often used younger animals for recordings.

Experiments were conducted at 22°C, most often between 36. The sharp initial decrease in the percentage of photopositive larvae seen after treatment with [sup] M quinpirole, contrasted with enhancement of phototaxis at higher concentrations, may reflect interactions with more than one class of DA receptor; no pharmacological profiles of bryozoan DA receptors are available.

Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Effects of monoaminergic Soliman S.

Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Studies on the role of Ca 2+ and cyclic nucleotides. Comp. Development of a dopaminergic system in sea urchin embryos and larvae.

Exp. In the present sea urchin larvae, Uncexpressing CBAS was localized diagonally to the circumoral ectoderm side on the oral side beneath the Netrin stripe by the ciliary band, but not right under the Netrin stripe (Figure 5(E–F5)). This suggests Uncexpressing CBAS is not solely under navigation control by the Unc-5/Netrin interaction.

The vast majority of animal phyla live in the ocean and develop via small ciliated larvae that form part of the zooplankton [].These larvae, called ‘primary larvae’, are equipped with sensory cells to perceive various stimuli including light, touch and chemical cues [2, 3].Simple nervous systems integrate sensory information and control ciliary locomotion [].

Soliman S. Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Effects of monoaminergic agents. Comp Biochem Physiol Part C Comp Pharmacol. ;– CAS Article Google Scholar. To uncover neuropeptide effects we characterized ciliary activity using video microscopy on immobilized Platynereis larvae.

We scored ciliary beat frequency and the rate and duration of ciliary arrests. Control larvae (50–60 hpf) beat with their cilia with a frequency of beats/s (SEM =n = larvae).

Gustafson, T. (b) Pharmacological control of muscular activity in the sea urchin larva. II Role of calcium in nicotinic stimulation and paralysis, and the modulatory role of muscarinic agents. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 94C: 15– Google Scholar. Science 05 May Vol.Issuepp. DOI: /science Wada Y, Mogami Y, Baba SA.

Modification of ciliary beating in sea urchin larvae induced by neurotransmitters: beat-plane rotation and control of frequency fluctuation. Exp. Biol. Medline, ISI, Google Scholar. Soliman S. Pharmacological control of ciliary activity in the young sea urchin larva. Effects of monoaminergic agents.

Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C, Comparative Pharmacology and Toxicology. ; – [Google Scholar]. In ophiuroids, pharmacological studies have failed to reveal mediators involved in the luminous control of Ophiopsila aranea and Ophiopsila californica.

By contrast, they have shown ACh to induce luminescence through muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors in Amphiura filiformis (Dewael and Mallefet, a) and through muscarinic. Purchase Cilia, Ciliated Epithelium, and Ciliary Activity - 1st Edition.

Print Book & E-Book. ISBN  Left-right (LR) organ asymmetries are a common feature of metazoan animals. In many cases, laterality is established by a conserved asymmetric Nodal signaling cascade during embryogenesis. In most vertebrates, asymmetric nodal induction results from a cilia-driven leftward fluid flow at the left-right organizer (LRO), a ciliated epithelium present during gastrula/neurula stages.

(See paper by D. Wood in this volume -- Ed.). Changes in membrane potential in turn lead to alterations in ciliary activity, which is one means of locomotion in many aneural organisms.

I wish to discuss some of the mechanisms by which this ciliary activity is regulated. Late gastrulae of paracentrotus lividus regenerated cilia after being deciliated in hypertonic sea water.

Regeneration was not affected by actinomycin D or puromycin. Actinomycin D also did not affect ciliary protein synthesis during regeneration, although overall embryonic synthesis was depressed. Puromycin inhibited both total embryonic and ciliary protein synthesis.

Europe PMC is an ELIXIR Core Data Resource Learn more >. Europe PMC is a service of the Europe PMC Funders' Group, in partnership with the European Bioinformatics Institute; and in cooperation with the National Center for Biotechnology Information at the U.S.

National Library of Medicine (NCBI/NLM).It includes content provided to the PMC International archive by participating publishers.In sea urchins, Burke [2] proposed a neural control of metamorphosis according to his electrical and obsolatory experiments that the larvae of D.

excentricus were induced to metamorphose by electrical stimulation of their two nerve centers, apical neuropile and oral ganglions, although he noted that GABA Accepted Febru Received.This sea urchin, commonly known as the pink urchin, or the fragile urchin, is patchily very abundant at depths of ~ m or more.

It is referred to as Allocentrotus fragilis in most of the recent literature, but a mtDNA phylogeny shows that it is a close relative of several species in the genus Strongylocentrotus (esp.

S. purpuratus and S. droebachiensis; Biermann et al. ), and thus Pearse.